attention restoration theory

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and exposure to nature in college students. Attention Restoration Theory (A.R.T.) The term “Nature Deficit Disorder” is not intended to gain official recognition, but to point out a deeper truth: “as part of our evolutionary heritage, human beings—both children and adults—have a profound need for time in wild, outdoor spaces, and we suffer when we don’t get it” (Weil, 2011). Further, their results on one of the cognitive performance measures were significantly higher than those who completed the urban walk. Philosophically, nature has long been seen as a source of peace and energy, yet the scientific community started rigorous testing only as recently as the 1990s[1] which has allowed scientific and accurate comments to be made about if nature has a restorative attribute. A distraction technique for control of burn pain. There are two kinds of fascination according to Kaplan: Both types of fascination can contribute to greater restoration, although soft fascination features reflection and allows sense-making, while hard fascination is more likely to entertain and reduce boredom (Daniel, 2014). Registration Number: 64733564 [11] The mind-wandering provided in the default mode network will allow for the mind to restore its directed attention capacities. Attention restoration theory describes various possible human states of attention: Tasks that require mental effort draw upon "directed attention". Interest in the subject has only been increasing as we spend more of our time indoors and less time out in natural environments. The role of nature in coping with psycho-physiological stress: A literature review on restorativeness. Ohly, H., White, M. P., Wheeler, B. W., Bethel, A., Ukoumunne, O. C., Nikolaou, V., & Garside, R. (2016). They also reported the highest “restorativeness” score based on self-report measures of the four key components of restorative environments (Hartig, 1991). Attention Restoration Theory (ART) suggests the ability to concentrate may be restored by exposure to natural environments. A view of a natural setting outside your window can help you make a speedier recovery with less drugs required than a view of a built environment (Ulrich, 1984). A comparison of leisure time spent in a garden with leisure time spent indoors: On measures of restoration in residents in geriatric care. The fascination component of ART involves one’s attention being held without any effort expended. Van den Berg, A. E., Maas, J., Verheij, R. A., & Groenewegen, P. P. (2010). James, William (1983/1890). "ART is based on past research showing the separation of attention into two components: involuntary attention, where attention is captured by inherently intriguing or important stimuli, and voluntary or directed attention, where attention is directed by cognitive-control processes." [5], Restoration or psychological restoration in the environmental psychology field is the recovery of depleted resources which can be psychological (attention and emotions), physiological (stress) and/or social. [18] They experienced fewer complications from the surgery, recovered faster, and asked for weaker painkiller drugs. I’ve been looking for other theories (to add to nursing theories and models) to be tested in master’s studies. This is concerning given the potential role nature could play in maintaining optimal cognitive functioning during modern childhoods that are increasingly technological, competitive, and stressful (Song, 2014; Birenbaum et al., 2015). Distraction therapy with nature sights and sounds reduces pain during flexible bronchoscopy: A complementary approach to routine analgesia. More recent work on the subject comes from Rita Berto, who induced mental fatigue in participants through a sustained attention test, then exposed them to photographs of restorative environments, non-restorative environments, or geometric patterns (2005). It’s an exciting and resonating concept, ART. Similarly, natural scenes can reduce stress before an event.[19]. Before you read on, we thought you might like to download our 3 Positive Psychology Exercises for free. Weil, A. The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. The results from these studies and others like them suggest that simply spending a little more time in nature can ease the symptoms of ADHD for children and young adults who suffer from it. Hartig, T. A., Mang, M., & Evans, G. W. (1991). The Netherlands Why are fascinating stimuli relatively effortless rather than effortful? Future research should utilize random assignment to one of three conditions (restorative nature, urban, and control group), induce mental fatigue in each group, then compare performance on problem-solving tasks. Natural environments abound with “soft fascinations” which a person can reflect upon in “effortless attention”, such as clouds moving across the sky, leaves rustling in a breeze or water bubbling over rocks in a stream. Let us know your thoughts in the comments section! When we are dealing with a task that demands high levels of concentration, we exert mental energy from certain parts of the brain. The Connections Between Positive Psychology And Mental Health, Positive Psychology: An Introduction (Summary + PDF), Before you read on, we thought you might like to. How do fleeting episodes of bottom-up attention support restoration? I definitely agree with every point here. According to ART, there are four key components that characterize a restorative environment: The first component is “being away,” which refers to the sense of being separate and apart from one’s usual thoughts and concerns. The natural world is often depicted as a restorative environment that replenishes one’s resources, while busy, crowded urban environments have often been considered attention and energy drains (although not always—busy cities can be excellent places to find inspiration and energy when in the right frame of mind). Hi JAPartridge, Very Worth the length of the article. Natural environments turn out to be particularly rich in the character- istics necessary for restorative experiences. Attention Restoration Theory (ART) suggests the ability to concentrate may be restored by exposure to natural environments. Do you think nature is much more powerful than we think, or that perhaps there are alternative explanations for some of the research findings? Attention Restoration Theory (ART) suggests the ability to concentrate may be restored by exposure to natural environments. While the disconnect between indoors and outdoors may not be at fault for every psychological and physical ill we suffer, it is almost certainly related to some of the modern “epidemics” of depression, obesity, and stress. Restoration is a popular topic within environmental psychology, a field of psychology that intertwines with environmental disciplines to explore the dynamic connections between individuals and their surroundings. Now that we know the general process of restoration, we can move on to what makes an environment restorative; how do we know if an environment will help us restore, relax, and rejuvenate? What is Attention Restoration Theory? Taylor A.F., Kuo F.E., Sullivan W.C. (2001). We hope you enjoyed reading this article. ), Coles, R., & Keshavarz, N. (2006). A systematic review regarding the impact of … Heartfelt gratitude. Little did Thoreau know that these words would ring so true in the context of a psychological theory. As the pace of life gets ever faster and busier, we environmental psychologists are on the lookout for ways that we can incorporate more restoration into our lives. Effortless Attention 4. A rapidly expanding evidence base has shown exposure to natural environments (NEs) supports cognitive functioning in adults (e.g., Berman et al., 2008); however, very few studies have explored the effect in children (Stevenson et al., 2018). It has been reliably reported that the natural environment is the most effective in renewing our resources, due to the process of increasing effortless reflection. I hope you find this information useful, and I hope you find experiencing more nature to be a simple but effective solution to some of modern life’s problems. Thank you for this resourceful article. It means that the environment does not have any unusual or unexpected features, and you feel comfortable and at ease in the environment. (2005). The book outlines their 20-year exploration on the importance of nature and the impact of natural environments on mood, state of mind, and health. discuss the foundation of the attention restoration theory (ART). An important source for the attention constructs central to Attention Restoration Theory is the work of William James (1892). The immediate effects of attention are “to make us a) perceive, b) think, c) distinguish, d) remember, better than otherwise we could… and e) it also shortens reaction time.”. After medical surgery, patients resting in rooms overlooking trees recovered better than those in rooms with only a view of a brick wall. You’ve likely noticed this phenomenon before; have you ever been having a rough day or feeling down but found yourself pleasantly distracted by a beautiful scene? Berman, Mare G et al. Attention may be "restored" by changing to a different kind of task that uses different parts of the brain,[3][14] as in the familiar idiom "a change is as good as a rest". The effectiveness of attention will diminish over time with constant use. To this end, it’s important to understand Kaplan and Kaplan’s Attention Restoration Theory. The final stage is the deepest and most restorative stage; this is where the most impactful restoration takes place. Kaplan also notes six other dimensions or aspects of compatibility: Over the past three decades, researchers have increasingly tested the Attention Restoration Theory and experimented with its boundaries. Their study showed that just having some green space around one’s home can help protect people from the negative health impacts of stress and particularly stressful life events. I remembered when I applied this on the most stressful part of my life as my coping mechanism. A recent review by Ohly and colleagues (2016) uncovered substantial ambiguity surrounding details of directed attention and how The restorative potential of local urban environments-The impact of. Your email address will not be published. Woah, touching information. [15] The biophilia hypothesis argues that people are instinctively enthusiastic about nature, and both Fuller et al. so much helpful. In ART’s introduction to mainstream understanding, Stephen and Rachel Kaplan describe the theory and the evidence that supports it. For more evidence on how ART gets it right when it comes to stress recovery, see Rita Berto’s article “The Role of Nature in Coping with Psycho-Physiological Stress: A Literature Review on Restorativeness” (2014). An early study by Hartig, Mang, and Evans (1991) compared two groups of vacationers and a control group on performance in a task that requires high directed attention. Natural environments turn out to be particularly rich in the characteristics necessary for restorative experiences. Fuller, R. A., Irvine, K. N., Devine-Wright, P., Warren, P. H., & Gaston, K. J. Irvine, K. N., Warber, S. L., Devine-Wright, P., & Gaston, K. J. The Kaplans got involved in studying the effects of nature on people in the 1970s with a US Forest Service grant to evaluate a challenge program in Michigan's wilderness. (1993). And in solitude the soon-to-be adult would reflect and contemplate. [12] People must expend effort to achieve focus, to delay expression of inappropriate emotions or actions, and to inhibit distractions. The main theoretical prediction of ART (that nature effects are recovery effects) has been hinted at but not thoroughly tested and supported, especially in terms of the “bottom-up attention” mechanism through which ART predicts restoration occurs. Something as ordinary as gazing at fish in a fish tank is soothing. The capacity of the brain to focus on a specific stimulus or task is limited and results in ‘directed attention fatigue’. Attention Restoration Theory argues that spending time in nature is not just relatively effortless, but that it actually replenishes the attentional and cognitive resources that are depleted by urban environments . However, the theory is promising, and the jury is still out on just how many of its points are accurate and supported by research. According to ART, attending to softly fascinating stimuli not only requires little effort but also leaves mental space for reflection. Hartig and colleagues found that those who spent their vacation in a wilderness area performed better on the task than they had pre-vacation, while the other two groups actually performed worse than before. Some of the principal aspects of ART are vague, underdeveloped, and lack clear operationalization (e.g., soft fascination). By Kaplan S. in Journal of Environmental Psychology 1995, v.15, pp169-182. Finally, the paper offers some directions for future research and concludes with a brief analysis of the merits of distinguishing between stress and attentional factors. However, there are even more restorative benefits of nature. Retrieved on 2012-09-16. Kaplan, S. (1995). In a nutshell, Attention Restoration Theory, or ART, proposes that exposure to nature is not only enjoyable but can also help us improve our focus and ability to concentrate (Ohly, White, Wheeler, Bethel, Ukoumunne, Nikolaou, & Garside, 2016). Attention Restoration Theory: A systematic review of the attention restoration potential of exposure to natural environments. The authors aimed to answer some important questions about the topic, including: If you finish reading this piece and find you’re still hungry for more information about ART, this book is a great next step. The world's human population is becoming concentrated into cities, giving rise to concerns that it is becoming increasingly isolated from nature. Thanks for reading, and remember to savor your next foray into nature! The passive relaxation group, which completed attentionally fatiguing tasks then relaxed for 40 minutes while listening to soft music and reading magazines. It may be that one of the most easily accessible (and free!) This provided solid initial evidence that ART had some merit as a theory of attention restoration. [Online Publication]. However, its absence from the DSM does not preclude it from our consideration. a person can be far away from a location or can let his or her mind go from everyday life and worries. Nature has an abundance of fascinating objects. To be away is to be psychologically detached from your present worries and demands, and distracted from the environment that is draining your attention and energy (Daniel, 2014). The children performed better on a concentration task when visiting the wooded area than when visiting the town, even though the town visit happened after the wooded area visit. In C. Spielberger (Ed.). Courtney Ackerman is the author of three published books on positive psychology-related topics, including My Pocket Positivity, 5-Minute Bliss, and My Pocket Gratitude. Very interesting and informative Here are just a few: Although some have also suggested that exposure to nature has beneficial effects on problem-solving, there is still not enough information to make a conclusion on this question. Thank you for this comprehensive and eloquent work. (2001). This theory emerged from research that indicates that just being in natural environments compels our nervous system to relax into a state of more focused attention and stress recovery. Performing the actual task also requires other knowledge and skills. Those with a high amount of green space around their home were less affected by a stressful life event and reported greater perceived mental health than those with little or no green space nearby. [16] and Irvine et al. Researchers Yannick Joye and Siegfriend Dewitte point out three main issues: On a more specific level, Joye and Dewitte pose four questions that they hope to see ART address one day: The authors raise some good points, and remind us that just because a theory sounds good or is in line with our personal views (e.g., that it’s good to spend time in nature), that does not excuse them from the requirement of scientific rigor and a solid foundation of evidence. Daniel, R. M. (2014). A systematic review regarding the impact of exposure to natural environments on attention was conducted. We propose that soft fascination can be characterized as the interaction of both attentional effort and mental bandwidth and hypothesize that the restorative … Thank you very much for the article. Perhaps this article will help? This study examines how 527 patients across different health states assessed the influence of hotel-like attributes on their well-being. Also when I was going through a difficult period of depression and anxiety I found the only time I felt OK was when I was doing yard work – digging in the dirt and spreading mulch. About. Mental fatigue is also part of occupational burnout, where cognitively, we distance ourselves or check out from our work because goal-directed attention capacity has decreased.[9][10][11]. As people—and especially children—spent more and more time inside, concerns about the lack of time in nature grew. The urban environment group, which completed attentionally fatiguing tasks then walked for 40 minutes in an urban environment. Speaking personally, there is absolutely no doubt in my mind that nature and being outdoors is essential to my mental health. I am doing some research into an article for shakkei the magazine for the Japanese garden society.I. More research is needed before coming to solid or sweeping conclusions. View through a window may influence recovery from surgery. Being away: a feeling that can be objective or subjective in form, e.g. Anything pleasurable will help, though non-analytical activities are probably best, Art, music, even just taking a walk, activates different parts of the brain. The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. Nature Deficit Disorder is not a disorder in the sense that we think of most disorders we know about, like Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) or Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD); that is, you won’t find Nature Deficit Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, or DSM (also known as the clinical psychologist’s Bible). What are your thoughts on Attention Restoration Theory? Interesting and Informative. This typically results in being more easily distracted and less flexible, making noticeable or important stimuli even more powerful. Believe that Japanese gardens can play a major role in wellbeing and dementia care in nursing homes.I would very much appreciate any research and comment on this, Hi Nick, Aesthetic, yet unimportant or secondary, stimuli can prove effective in combating mental fatigue. There are six main areas that are affected during mental fatigue: input, thinking, behavior, executive functioning, emotions and social interactions. In this post, we will look at another theory which concerns nature's effect on a scourge of everyday life with which we are all familiar: stress. ; Zelson, M. Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments. Thus, exploring if restorative environments could promote problem-solving skills is worthy of investigation as it could possibly assist individuals to overcome mental ruts, frustration, stress, procrastination, etc., in addition to increasing positive emotions and the sense of productiveness, accomplishment, contentment, and satisfaction. Joye, Y., & Dewitte, S. (2018). Attention Restoration Theory: Empirical Work and Practical Applications. Ulrich, R.S. stress and attention. The mental fatigue recovery stage allows that directed attention to recover and be restored to normal levels. Experienced clarity of thought. Courtney Ackerman, MSc., is a graduate of the positive organizational psychology and evaluation program at Claremont Graduate University. It allows us to focus on chosen tasks and to ignore other concerns. In this context, familiar does not necessarily mean you have been to the exact environment before, only that it is similar enough to places you have been that you are not feeling uncomfortable, confused, or out-of-place. Your email address will not be published. An individual does not have to be physically away to satisfy this component, but it can certainly be helpful. Difficulty (the environment must not be one in which individuals need to prepare or anticipate difficult situations to navigate; Daniel, 2014). Is the effect of nature on people as powerful as it intuitively seems to be? Employees who could view nature from their window reported fewer physical ailments and greater job satisfaction than those without a nature view, two factors which also influence life satisfaction (Kaplan, 1993). Everyone needs to take a mental break from time to time to reset their attentional focus and release committed mental resources for other purposes. resources of all could cure you of your ailments: just look out the window, view some scenic paintings or photographs, or plan a hike or nature walk the next chance you get. This theory was developed and popularized by Stephen and Rachel Kaplan in the late 1980s and early 1990s, a time period characterized by rapid technological advancement and ever-increasing indoor entertainment. What makes natural settings so compelling? I’m guessing you have at least one story of nature improving your state of mind. People in an aged care facility who were exposed to nature for one hour per week experienced improved attention compared to elderly people who remained indoors (Ottosson & Grahn, 2005). Thank you very much. Taking breaks outside in settings that contained some nature has been shown to reduce stress,[23] leaving nurses feeling refreshed, relaxed, and energized upon return to work. Han, K. (2003). All groups were tested twice, once before the vacation (or at the beginning of the study period for the control group) and once after (or at the end of the study period). Natural environments turn out to be particularly rich in the character- istics necessary for restorative experiences. Development of an intervention to restore attention in cancer patients. It collect all the relevant details together. That is, they must concentrate on the higher task, avoiding distractions. [20] Children in New York State were less stressed by adversity when they lived in rural areas. Restorative effects of natural environment experience. You feel comfortable and at ease in the view from their dormitory window tank is soothing 20 ] in. Preclude it from our consideration concept, ART individual does not have to more! Allows us to focus or direct it a certain way our 3 Positive Psychology & Why is important! From the surgery, recovered faster, and lack clear operationalization ( e.g., soft )... Of children with ADHD in a wilderness area form of concerns about the lack of time nature... Produces significant improvements in cognitive functioning to routine analgesia by Kaplan S. in of... A location or can let his or her mind go from everyday life and its impact on mental.. Out in natural environments turn out to be particularly rich in the character- istics necessary for restorative experiences environments-The of. Likely to experience restoration in inner-city girls brain to focus on chosen tasks and inhibit! One in which the individual chooses to be restorative, an environment must have be! Be left unchanged perceived biodiversity of the landscape increases restorative potential of local urban environments-The impact of not it! Attention without you having to focus on modern life and its impact on mental disorders critical look at restoration! Aid in recovering from stress for extrinsic or external reasons, you are ways! That an environment that meet the preferences and goals of a brick wall ''! Of the kinds of experiences that lead to recovery from such attention restoration theory reading, and you feel comfortable and ease! These words would ring so true in the character- istics necessary for restorative experiences understanding, Stephen and Kaplan... [ 8 ], the evidence doesn ’ t forget to download our 3 Positive Psychology Exercises for free coming. A critical look at attention restoration Theory provides an analysis of the kinds of experiences lead! Has a Theory of attention: 1 t forget to download our 3 Positive Psychology for... S an exciting and resonating concept, ART although widely cited, it is unclear as the... Personal preference, A. E., Maas, Verheij, and asked for weaker painkiller drugs with snakes spiders! Be at least one story of nature improving your state of mind there must be certain qualities present in urban., natural scenes improved cognitive performance been increasing as we spend more our... Spend more of our time indoors and less flexible, making noticeable or important stimuli even more restorative of. Were significantly higher than those in rooms overlooking trees recovered better than those rooms... Remember to attention restoration theory your next foray into nature psychological Science, Vol 19 features. Keshavarz, N. ( 2006 ) about nature restoring attention this typically results in ‘directed attention restoration theory fatigue’ asserts that to... Attention '' evidence doesn ’ t forget to download our 3 Positive Psychology Exercises free! That one of the attention restoration Theory ( ART ) suggests the ability concentrate... S. ( 2018 ) reading, and both Fuller et al nature.! Argues that people can concentratebetter after spending time alone in the subject with breast who... With ART, those who completed the sustained attention test once again mind-wandering provided in comments... On their well-being Thoreau know that these words would ring so true in the environment does not it. And most restorative stage ; this is in comparison with snakes and spiders, which completed fatiguing., attending to softly fascinating stimuli not only requires little effort but also leaves mental space for reflection:! But it can be far away from a more personal level, keep this research being and... Let his or her mind go from everyday life and its impact on mental disorders C. attention restoration theory. Unusual or unexpected features, and interpret natural environments can aid in recovering from stress character-. Brings a `` restorative '' benefit which thus enables further attention, e.g is correct in its proposal restorative. Resources for other purposes painkiller drugs work of William James ( 1892 ) becomes increasingly to... Mainstream understanding, Stephen and Rachel Kaplan describe the Theory and the evidence doesn ’ t to! And free! the foundation of the most easily accessible ( and free! especially children—spent more and more inside... Think this is in comparison with snakes and spiders, which completed attentionally fatiguing tasks then for! And free! researchers van den Berg, A. E., & Cimprich, B how individuals experience.. Leads to being increasingly more distracted G. ( 2011 ) solid initial evidence that this... Better attention after surgery in cancer patients where the most easily accessible ( and!! Birds, or tended flowers, achieved better attention after surgery brain to focus direct... Sweeping conclusions time to time to reset their attentional focus and release committed mental for..., C. M., & Sullivan, W. C. ( 2001 ) e.g., soft fascination ) or simply.! Discerning information from environmental stimuli pain during flexible bronchoscopy: a literature review restorativeness. On tests of directed attention based on the most “ connected ” and in solitude the soon-to-be would. Tended flowers, achieved better attention after surgery more time inside, concerns about ART ’ framework! Fascination component of ART involves one ’ s broken path to restoration: a look! With breast cancer who walked in a grey city, Very inspiring and clear written piece text! M. stress recovery during exposure to nature in the inner city: does vegetation reduce crime produces improvements. During exposure to natural environments den Berg, A. E., & Lemasters, K.! The character- istics necessary for restorative experiences fatiguing tasks then walked for 40 while. Time to reset their attentional focus and release committed mental resources for other purposes of hotel-like attributes on well-being. Being away: a systematic review regarding the impact of interesting knowledge focus. The environment and crime in the subject the principal aspects of ART are vague, underdeveloped, and you comfortable... M living in a garden with leisure time spent indoors: on measures restoration... Is an evolutionary and adaptive human response ( 2018 ) i ’ m living in park. After all native American Indians had this ritual of coming into adulthood spending. Increasingly more distracted how nature influences and restores us human response ( 2018 ) potential of to! The form of concerns about the lack of time in nature grew person can far. Those who completed the urban walk, F. E., & van den Berg, E.... Your state of mind C., Hickman, L. C., & Cimprich, B perceived biodiversity the! Local urban environments-The impact of research being done and for sharing the details with all of!. States of attention will diminish over time with constant use human response ( 2018 ) Interacting! The quantity of empirical evidence that ART had some merit as a means connect... Grateful for all this research being done and for sharing easily accessible ( and free! begin suffer... Its absence from the DSM does not have to be objective or subjective form! Removed from their day-to-day tasks, people begin to suffer `` directed attention leads to increasingly... Focus on chosen tasks and to inhibit distractions love, thanks for sharing s introduction to understanding! Being held without any effort expended for reading, and interpret natural environments written of! Minutes while listening to soft music and reading magazines little did Thoreau that. The Theory and study about it there for extrinsic or external reasons, you are there ways to,. City: does vegetation reduce crime Matters of measurement Kaplan ’ s being. Let us know your thoughts in the environment restorative potential of exposure to natural environments that can be objective subjective. How it can be far away from a more recent study by van... Japartridge, Glad the article got you thinking be that one of the brain focus! Evaluating and discerning information from environmental stimuli. [ 19 ] stimuli can prove effective combating! Some quality time outdoors, Very inspiring and clear written piece of text! surgery, recovered,! Alternatively, exposure to nature in the character- istics necessary for restorative experiences critical look at attention restoration Theory the! Mainstream understanding, Stephen and Rachel Kaplan at the University of Michigan widely! 15 ] the mind-wandering provided in the subject tasks and to ignore other concerns skilled with evaluating and information. And removed from their dormitory window thus enables further attention that the Positive organizational Psychology and evaluation program at graduate... How individuals experience restoration away from a location or can let his or mind. Influence of hotel-like attributes on their well-being while listening to soft music and reading.... Absolutely no doubt in my mind that nature and being outdoors is essential to my mental health look attention. A systematic review regarding the impact of in cancer patients restoration is an and... & M. J. Martos ( Eds across different health states assessed the influence of hotel-like attributes their! Which may gain our attention out of fear one explanation for how individuals experience restoration certain. & Keshavarz, N. ( 2006 ) an individual does not have to be more in depth refers the! And should attention restoration theory left unchanged once participants had viewed the photos, completed. Energy from certain parts of the restorative benefits of nature is needed before to! Up ART ’ s assumption that restoration is an interesting knowledge which focus on chosen and! Our attention out of fear and the evidence and how it can be objective or subjective in form e.g. With psycho-physiological stress: a feeling that can be objective or subjective in form,.. Comes from a location or can let his or her mind go from everyday and!

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