polyvinyl chloride structure

This lowers the crystallinity of the polymer, increasing its flexibility and ability to be moulded into useful shapes such as containers and packaging. Search results for polyvinyl chloride at Sigma-Aldrich. Polyvinyl chloride (colloquial: polyvinyl, vinyl;[6] abbreviated: PVC) is the world's third-most widely produced synthetic plastic polymer (after polyethylene and polypropylene[7]). Search results for polyvinyl chloride at Sigma-Aldrich. Polyvinyl Chloride or "PVC" is a widely used thermoplastic. [39] Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Lentinus tigrinus, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus sydowii can effectively degrade PVC.[40]. 1-Chloroethylene # Chloroethylene homopolymerise [French] FC 4648. PVC has extremely good resistance to oils (except essential oils) and very low permeability to most gases. The infrared spectra of polyvinyl chloride and polyvinyl bromide resembled each other. Liquid mixed metal stabilisers are used in several PVC flexible applications such as calendered films, extruded profiles, injection moulded soles and footwear, extruded hoses and plastisols where PVC paste is spread on to a backing (flooring, wall covering, artificial leather). The report concludes that "no single material shows up as the best across all the human health and environmental impact categories, nor as the worst" but that the "risk of dioxin emissions puts PVC consistently among the worst materials for human health impacts. This is confirmed by the corresponding growth in calcium-based stabilizers, used as an alternative to lead-based stabilizers, more and more, also outside Europe. One of the most crucial additives are heat stabilizers. This number, however, continues to increase as it looks to replace traditional materials such as wood, metal, concrete and ceramics in a variety of applications. It is also used in making bottles, non-food packaging, food-covering sheets, and cards (such as bank or membership cards). [73], In November 2005 one of the largest hospital networks in the US, Catholic Healthcare West, signed a contract with B. Braun Melsungen for vinyl-free intravenous bags and tubing. [57][58] Other studies have shown a clear correlation between dioxin formation and chloride content and indicate that PVC is a significant contributor to the formation of both dioxin and PCB in incinerators. Resulting products can be PVC films, sheets, boards and tubes. Find Polyvinyl Chloride Plastic Pvc Chemical Structure stock images in HD and millions of other royalty-free stock photos, illustrations and vectors in the Shutterstock collection. The reasons for using flexible PVC in these applications for over 50 years are numerous and based on cost effectiveness linked to transparency, light weight, softness, tear strength, kink resistance, suitability for sterilization and biocompatibility. It's currently ranked as the third most widely used plastic in the world (behind polyethylene and polypropylene). This is the PVC from which pipes are made, and PVC pipe is everywhere. The polymer is made from 57% chlorine and 43% carbon. [75], In 1998, the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) arrived at a voluntary agreement with manufacturers to remove phthalates from PVC rattles, teethers, baby bottle nipples and pacifiers. Bailey Line Road 176,500 views The largest single producer of PVC as of 2018 is Shin-Etsu Chemical of Japan, with a global share of around 30%. It's durable, long-lasting, and finds use in a wide range of applications such as construction, packaging, electrical wiring, and medicine. [29] Its lightweight, low cost, and low maintenance make it attractive. [55] According to the EPA dioxin inventory, landfill fires are likely to represent an even larger source of dioxin to the environment. Available: https://www.kemi.se/en/statistics/statistics-in-brief/substances-and-substance-groups/pvc, Plasticized Polyvinyl chloride, plasticized (PPVC). Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) occurs as white, amorphous, odourless powder. PVC produces HCl upon combustion almost quantitatively related to its chlorine content. Unmodified PVC is very rigid and unusable in most applications, so plasticizers are used in order There are two main classes of PVC (Figure 2): The addition of plasticisers to PVC acts as a lubricant to the rigid crystalline polymer chains, lowering the crystallinity and yielding a much clearer and flexible plastic material. PVC is a polymer with good insulation properties, but because of its higher polar nature the electrical insulating property is inferior to non-polar polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene. Atactic polyvinyl chloride is not crystalline, rather, it is said to be amorphous. As the volume is reduced during the reaction (PVC is denser than VCM), water is continually added to the mixture to maintain the suspension.[7]. Oxygen concentration also plays a major role on dioxin formation, but not the chlorine content.[63]. Instead, most dioxins arise in the condensed solid phase by the reaction of inorganic chlorides with graphitic structures in char-containing ash particles. Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC), copper (II), molybdenum and zinc oxides, and organically modified montmorillonite nanocomposites were prepared in a melt blending intercalation process. [50], In Europe the use of lead-based stabilizers was gradually replaced. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC, vinyl) is the world’s most versatile plastic. The unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (UPVC) windows market is expected to post a year-over-year growth rate of -9.42%. It is made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers. Polyvinyl Chloride structure [2]. PVC degrades at relatively low temperatures (∼100°C) in the presence of light to release hydrogen chloride. DIBP is still on the REACH Candidate List for Authorisation. Pure polyvinyl chloride is a white, brittle solid. The result was a more flexible and more easily processed material that soon achieved widespread commercial use. A chemical structure of a molecule includes the arrangement of atoms and the chemical bonds that hold the atoms together. © 2020 Matmatch GmbH, All rights reserved. Available: https://omnexus.specialchem.com/selection-guide/polyvinyl-chloride-pvc-plastic, [3] KEMI, “Statistics in brief - PVC,” [Online]. Available: https://www.plasticseurope.org/application/files/6315/4510/9658/Plastics_the_facts_2018_AF_web.pdf, [2] SpecialChem, “Comprehensive Guide on Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC),” 2017. Roughly half of the world's PVC resin manufactured annually is used for producing pipes for municipal and industrial applications. It is found in a variety of industries and environments both indoor and out.[35]. The plumbing in your house is probably PVC pipe, unless it's an older house. Extensive studies in Europe indicate that the chlorine found in emitted dioxins is not derived from HCl in the flue gases. A middle vinyl foam layer also gives a comfortable and safe feel. Laroflex® MP 15 . PVC was synthesized in 1872 by German chemist Eugen Baumann after extended investigation and experimentation. The vinyl chloride molecule is C 2 H 3 Cl PVC can be usefully modified by chlorination, which increases its chlorine content to or above 67%. The carbon atoms in the chemical structure of VI… Due to its inherent instability the commercial applications of the polymer could only be developed after the development of effective means for its stabilization. [12] The other major suppliers are based in North America and Western Europe. 4.21. Polyvinylchloride. The unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (UPVC) windows market is expected to post a year-over-year growth rate of -9.42%. Polyvinyl chloride—Processing and structure 603 2.2.1 Extrusion of plasticized PV Processing is unproblematic even in the case of higher filled recipes-up to 50 vol.% mineral powder can be applied - as the viscosity of the melt is already low enough at about … Almost one third of plastic-based medical devices are made from PVC. Reuse and preparation for reuse: giving the products a second life before they become waste. Environmental Science & Technology, a peer-reviewed journal published by the American Chemical Society states that it is completely safe.[46]. 20.3.3 Polyvinyl chloride. [7] Technology for removal of VCM from products has become stringent, commensurate with the associated regulations. Phthalates can be categorized as high and low, depending on their molecular weight. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) January 2017; Kunststoffe International 107(10):8-13; Authors: K.-M. Schellerer . The Department of Housing and Community Development prepared and certified an environmental impact statement resulting in a recommendation that the commission adopt and approve the use of CPVC. DOI: 10.1021/ma9611883. pvc is gods gift cunt PVC has been used for a host of consumer products. Comparison between the properties of flexible polyvinyl chloride and rigid polyvinyl chloride [2], Thermal Insulation (Thermal Conductivity). Vinyls > Polyvinyl Chloride & Vinyl Chloride Copolymers (PVC) 135. Transfer structure to query page; Find similar structures; Na + Find parent, salts, and hydrates; Enlarge the structure; Substance Name: Polyvinyl chloride RN: 9002-86-2. The first is the emission of toxic and corrosive gases when melting the material. 9002-86-2 - Polyvinyl chloride - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information. Tin stabilizers are the preferred stabilizers for high output PVC and CPVC extrusion. Polyvinyl Chloride Economical, versatile polyvinyl chloride (PVC, or vinyl) is used in a variety of applications in the building and construction, health care, electronics, automobile and other sectors, in products ranging from piping and siding, blood bags and tubing, to wire and cable insulation, windshield system components and more. Thus laden with high levels of POPs, the microparticles are often ingested by organisms in the biosphere[citation needed]. The most common type of gasket utilized in North A… Zur Navigation springen Zur Suche springen. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride, (CPVC), as it is called, is produced by chlorination of aqueous solution of suspension PVC particles followed by exposure to UV light which initiates the free-radical chlorination. the rate for recycling or reuse and the percentage of recycled content. 'Chloride' references the fact that the structure of PVC contains the element chlorine. The VINYL CHLORIDE molecule contains a total of 5 bond(s) There are 2 non-H bond(s), 1 multiple bond(s) and 1 double bond(s). Previously, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were added to certain PVC products as flame retardants and stabilizers.[15]. The report also covers all five sustainability challenges that the sector has set for itself covering controlled loop management, organochlorine emissions, sustainable use of additives, sustainable use of energy and raw materials and sustainability awareness. The polymerization of VCM is started by compounds called initiators that are mixed into the droplets. [69] Its main target is to recycle 800,000 tonnes per year of PVC by 2020 including 100,000 tonnes of "difficult to recycle" waste. One facilitator for collection and recycling of PVC waste is Recovinyl. Thousands of new, high-quality pictures added every day. The vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) is formed by combining ethylene (obtained from oil) with Chlorine (produced from the electrolysis of salt water). As a thermoplastic, PVC has an inherent insulation that aids in reducing condensation formation and resisting internal temperature changes for hot and cold liquids.[25]. At another site, average total POPs adhered to HDPE was nearly 30 times that of PVC. VCM and water are introduced into the reactor along with a polymerization initiator and other additives. Matmatch uses cookies and similar technologies to improve your experience and measure your interactions with our website. In the emulsion process, PVC powder is mixed with plasticisers to produce a paste/resin, which is then used for coatings, dipping and spraying. The linear expansion coefficient of rigid PVC is small and has good flame retardancy, the limiting oxygen index (LOI) being up to 45 or more. The fungus Aspergillus fumigatus effectively degrades plasticized PVC. Compatible plasticisers can be added as softening agents to enhance some mechanical properties, while fillers can increase the stiffness, impact performance and add colour, opacity and conductivity. Note. The mechanical properties enhance with the molecular weight increasing but decrease with the temperature increasing. [10] The polymer appeared as a white solid inside a flask of vinyl chloride that had been left on a shelf sheltered from sunlight for four weeks. It is also resistant to some solvents, this, however, is reserved mainly for uPVC (unplasticized PVC). Many diverse agents have been used including, traditionally, derivatives of heavy metals (lead, cadmium). Some plasticizers in the phthalate family have become controversial in recent years and the industry has moved to replace them. Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization of the vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), as shown. Table 1. But there's more to PVC than just pipe. PVC resin obtained from the above processes is extremely unstable due to low thermal stability and high melt viscosity. While di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (DEHP) has been medically approved for many years for use in medical devices, it was permanently banned for use in children's products in the US in 2008 by US Congress;[16] the PVC-DEHP combination had proved to be very suitable for making blood bags because DEHP stabilizes red blood cells, minimizing hemolysis (red blood cell rupture). Since June 2011, it is followed by VinylPlus, a new set of targets for sustainable development. "[65], The European waste hierarchy refers to the five steps included in the article 4 of the Waste Framework Directive:[66]. [72] This recycled PVC's primary energy demand is 46 percent lower than conventional produced PVC. Recovery: some waste incineration based on a political non-scientific formula, Disposal: processes to dispose of waste be it landfilling, incineration, pyrolysis, gasification and other finalist solutions. PVC can also be blended with other thermoplastic materials to improve specific properties. The "vinyl" siding used on houses is made of poly(vinyl chloride). High phthalates are not CMR (carcinogenic, mutagenic or toxic for reproduction), neither are they considered endocrine disruptors. We connect engineers, product designers and procurement teams with the best materials and suppliers for their job. Roughly half of the world's PVC resin manufactured annually is used for producing pipes for municipal and industrial applications. There are, therefore, many different PVC products available with varying additive compositions and properties. T. Kufner. PVC pipe is what rural high schools with small budgets use to make goal posts for their football fields. The LOI is the minimum concentration of oxygen, expressed as a percentage, that will support combustion of a polymer and noting that air has 20% content of oxygen. Prevention: preventing and reducing waste generation. The soft PVC (flexible PVC) elastic limit is 1.5–15 MPa. [53] Since that time, studies of PVC workers in Australia, Italy, Germany, and the UK have all associated certain types of occupational cancers with exposure to vinyl chloride, and it has become accepted that VCM is a carcinogen. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) was first prepared in the laboratory over a hundred years ago. Due to its versatile nature, PVC is used extensively across a broad range of industrial, technical and everyday applications including widespread use in building, transport, packaging, electrical/electronic and … PVC is derived from salt and The heat stability of raw PVC is very poor, so the addition of a heat stabilizer during the process is necessary in order to ensure the product's properties. Waldo Semon and the B.F. Goodrich Company developed a method in 1926 to plasticize PVC by blending it with various additives. Polyvinyl Chloride is a homopolymer of vinyl chloride that conforms to the formula: (C 2 H 3 Cl) X . Chemical Composition. Ethylene, chloro-, polymer. [Online]. PVC clothing is common in Goth, Punk, clothing fetish and alternative fashions. In general liquid mixed metals like BaZn and CaZn require the addition of co-stabilisers, antioxidants and organophosphites to provide optimum performance. - DH2MKM from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Polyvinyl chloride Structural Formula V1.svg 155 × 136; 9 KB. The European Commission has set new rules to promote the recovery of PVC waste for use in a number of construction products. This is a plastic that has the following chemical formula: CH2=CHCl (see picture on the right). Poly(vinyl chloride) is the plastic known at the hardware store as PVC. A wide variety of substances can be used as plasticizers including phthalates, adipates, trimellitates, polymeric plasticizers and expoxidized vegetable oils. The PVC product is then commonly moulded into desired shapes using extrusion, injection moulding and calendering. The presence of chlorine makes it … [26] In the private homeowner market, it accounts for 66% of the household market in the US, and in household sanitary sewer pipe applications, it accounts for 75%. A survey of international studies consistently identifies high dioxin concentrations in areas affected by open waste burning and a study that looked at the homologue pattern found the sample with the highest dioxin concentration was "typical for the pyrolysis of PVC". Emulsion polymerization accounts for about 12%, and bulk polymerization accounts for 8%. Jeden Tag werden Tausende neue, hochwertige Bilder hinzugefügt. Recycled PVC is used in place of virgin PVC in various applications: coatings for swimming pools, shoe soles, hoses, diaphragms tunnel, coated fabrics, PVC sheets. Copper acts as a catalyst for these reactions. Recycle: any recovery operation by which waste materials are reprocessed into products, materials or substances whether for the original or other purposes. Due to vinyl gloves having less flexibility and elasticity, several guidelines recommend either latex or nitrile gloves for clinical care and procedures that require manual dexterity and/or that involve patient contact for more than a brief period. The researchers think that differences in the size and shape of the polymer molecules can explain why some accumulate more pollutants than others. The two main application areas for single-use medically approved PVC compounds are flexible containers and tubing: containers used for blood and blood components, for urine collection or for ostomy products and tubing used for blood taking and blood giving sets, catheters, heart-lung bypass sets, hemodialysis sets etc. CPVC has been a nationally accepted material in the US since 1982; California, however, has permitted only limited use since 2001. Some degree of syndiotacticity of the chain gives a few percent crystallinity that is influential on the properties of the material. (1932 [1931]). Product Name. Polyvinyl chloride, commonly referred to as PVC or Vinyl, is the world’s 3rd most synthesised thermoplastic material. Although flexible PVC also has a range of applications in the construction industry as in flooring, cable insulations, and waterproof linings, its most useful application is in the medical industry. 46 likes. Images of the chemical structure of VINYL CHLORIDE are given below: The 2D chemical structure image of VINYL CHLORIDE is also called skeletal formula, which is the standard notation for organic molecules. In the electrical industry, PVC is very useful in insulation pipes, jacketing, switches, plug housings and battery terminals due to its high electrical insulation and dielectric strength. *Please select more than one item to compare Since the dielectric constant, dielectric loss tangent value, and volume resistivity are high, the corona resistance is not very good, and it is generally suitable for medium or low voltage and low frequency insulation materials. Polyvinyl chloride is one of the cheapest and most widely used plastics globally. It comes in rigid and flexible varieties. Plasticized PVC is also used to produce thin, colored, or clear, adhesive-backed films referred to simply as vinyl. Choosing a Backup Generator Plus 3 LEGAL House Connection Options - Transfer Switch and More - Duration: 12:39. The equipment necessary for such a process is typically very expensive. The Green Paper states further that at the current levels of chlorine in municipal waste, there does not seem to be a direct quantitative relationship between chlorine content and dioxin formation. This compound is then polymerized to form a PVC resin where different additives can be added to the … [27][28] Buried PVC pipes in both water and sanitary sewer applications that are 100 mm (4 in) in diameter and larger are typically joined by means of a gasket-sealed joint. Acts as a binder in paints for iron and steel structures, mineral substrates, plastics, shipbuilding and underwater... view more. The VinylPlus voluntary commitment which began in 2000, saw European Stabiliser Producers Association (ESPA) members complete the replacement of Pb-based stabilisers in 2015.[51][52]. Several studies have also shown that removing PVC from waste would not significantly reduce the quantity of dioxins emitted. Some initiators start the reaction rapidly but decay quickly, and other initiators have the opposite effect. Abstract Aim Clinical application of insulin infusion therapy is usually accomplished with regular human insulin. The acetylene so generated is then converted to VCM which usually involves the use of a mercury-based catalyst. [49], Lead had previously been frequently added to PVC to improve workability and stability. To comply with the EU emission limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/m3 modern incinerators operate in conditions minimising dioxin formation and are equipped with pollution control devices which catch the low amounts produced. It is therefore increasingly import - ant to carefully select, develop and match all the formulation components. Figure 2.Comparison between the compositions of flexible polyvinyl chloride (Top) and rigid … Cl[C]=C. Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has become a universal polymer with many applications (e.g., for pipes, floor coverings, cable insulation, roofing sheets, packaging foils, bottles, and medical products) because of its low cost and physical, chemical, and weathering properties. [1] PlasticsEurope, “Plastics - the Facts 2018,” 2018. The production process also uses sodium chloride. Also known as microplastics, these particles act like sponges and soak up persistent organic pollutants (POPs) around them. [Online]. If no plasticizers are added, it is known as uPVC (unplasticized polyvinyl chloride) or rigid PVC. These additives allow PVC to be rigid or flexible, opaque or transparent, and it is easy to color. The smooth, tough surface of the upper wear layer prevents the buildup of dirt, which prevents microbes from breeding in areas that need to be kept sterile, such as hospitals and clinics. Atactic poly(vinyl chloride) GEON 51. The regular arrangement of the chlorine atoms in this structure allows the polymer chains to pack together closely and be held in place by intermolecular forces between the chains. However, in China, where there are substantial stocks, coal is the main starting material for the calcium carbide process. Polyester blends combine the excellent processing characteristics of PVC with the superior physical properties of polyesters, increasing abrasion resistance, tensile strength and tear resistance. PVC can also be blended with nitrile rubber (NBR), to increase flexibility and elastic recovery properties. Compare Products: Select up to 4 products. The reaction is exothermic and thus requires cooling. In a fire, PVC-coated wires can form hydrogen chloride fumes; the chlorine serves to scavenge free radicals and is the source of the material's fire retardancy. One of its earliest mass-market consumer applications was vinyl record production. The most common type of gasket utilized in North America is a metal reinforced elastomer, commonly referred to as a Rieber sealing system. Datum: 1. ClC=[C] EC 200-831-0. It is a thermoplastic having good resistance to alkalis, salts, and highly polar solvents, and it is flame retardant due to the presence of chlorine in the structure. In Europe, for example, DINP can no longer be used in toys and childcare items that can be put in the mouth even though the EU scientific risk assessment concluded that its use in toys does not pose a risk to human health or the environment. About 40 million tons of PVC are produced each year. [74], In January 2012 a major US West Coast healthcare provider, Kaiser Permanente, announced that it will no longer buy intravenous (IV) medical equipment made with PVC and DEHP-type plasticizers. Plastic covers a wide rage of synthetic or semi-synthetic polymerization products (i.e. Polyvinyl chloride—Processing and structure 603 2.2.1 Extrusion of plasticized PV Processing is unproblematic even in the case of higher filled recipes-up to 50 vol.% mineral powder can be applied - as the viscosity of the melt is already low enough at about 175°C and the heat of shear remains insignifigant. Risk assessment results have shown positive results regarding the safe use of High Molecular Weight Phthalates. A study commissioned by the European Commission on "Life Cycle Assessment of PVC and of principal competing materials" states that "Recent studies show that the presence of PVC has no significant effect on the amount of dioxins released through incineration of plastic waste. Download royalty-free Structural formula of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) drawn on a white background stock vector 12102823 from Depositphotos collection of millions of premium high-resolution stock photos, vector images and illustrations. Laroflex® MP 15 by BASF is a copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl isobutyl ether. CCRIS 634. chloro-ethene. [7] Addition levels vary typically from 2% to 4%. Polyvinyl chloride was accidentally discovered on at least two occasions in the 19th century, first in 1838 by Henri Victor Regnault and in 1872 by Eugen Baumann.On both occasions, the polymer appeared as a white solid inside flasks of vinyl chloride that had been left exposed to sunlight. 1032X. A comparison of some important properties of the two different classes is included in the table below. The plumbing in your house is probably PVC pipe, unless it's an older house. Macromolecules 1997 , 30 (4) , 959-965. The slurry is further dried in a hot air bed, and the resulting powder is sieved before storage or pelletization. F. Riedmiller. More recent examples include wallcovering, greenhouses, home playgrounds, foam and other toys, custom truck toppers (tarpaulins), ceiling tiles and other kinds of interior cladding. The process is completely reversible and repeatable given that the temperatures are not elevated over a certain temperature. Tin stabilizers can be divided into two main groups, the first group containing those with tin-oxygen bonds and the second group with tin-sulfur bonds. The unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (UPVC) windows market is expected to post a year-over-year growth rate of -9.42%. In Europe, particularly Belgium, there has been a commitment to eliminate the use of cadmium (previously used as a part component of heat stabilizers in window profiles) and phase out lead-based heat stabilizers (as used in pipe and profile areas) such as liquid autodiachromate and calcium polyhydrocummate by 2015. These compounds break down to start the radical chain reaction. Some studies indicate that this outgassing of additives may contribute to health complications, and have resulted in a call for banning the use of DEHP on shower curtains, among other uses. April 2008: Quelle: Eigenes Werk: Urheber: NEUROtiker: SVG‑Erstellung: Diese Strukturformel wurde mit Adobe Illustrator erstellt. Inside the house, PVC is used to make linoleum for the floor. cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid diisononylester, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks, "Substance Details CAS Registry Number: 9002-86-2", https://www.qubicaamf.com/msds-forms/forms/gutter-coverboard-capping-en.pdf, Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry, "Shin-Etsu Chemical to build $1.4bn polyvinyl chloride plant in US", "Health Concerns and Environmental Issues with PVC-Containing Building Materials in Green Buildings", https://noharm-uscanada.org/issues/us-canada/phthalates-and-dehp, Opinion on The safety of medical devices containing DEHP plasticized PVC or other plasticizers on neonates and other groups possibly at risk (2015 update), "Thermoplastics at Work: A Comprehensive Review of Municipal PVC Piping Products", PolyVinyl (Poly Vinyl Chloride) in Construction, https://www.ultrapatches.com/blog/learn-all-about-pvc-patches, "Coated Aircraft Cable & Wire Rope | Lexco Cable", Plastic Debris Delivers Triple Toxic Whammy, Ocean Study Shows – Algalita | Marine Research and EducationAlgalita | Marine Research and Education, Directive 2005/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council 14 December 2005, Vinyl shower curtains a 'volatile' hazard, study says, "The Association between Asthma and Allergic Symptoms in Children and Phthalates in House Dust: A Nested Case–Control Study", Phthalate Information Center Blog: More good news from Europe, Plasticisers and Flexible PVC information centre – Diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), "Safety Assessment ofDi(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)Released from PVC Medical Devices", "China's PVC pipe makers under pressure to give up lead stabilizers", European Stabiliser Producers Association, "Estimating Releases and Prioritizing Sources in the Context of the Stockholm Convention", Polyvinyl Chloride Plastics in Municipal Solid Waste Combustion, An analysis by the Healthy Building NEtwork, Life Cycle Assessment of PVC and of principal competing materials Commissioned by the European Commission, Home – Vinyl 2010 The European PVC industry commitment to Sustainability, https://vinylplus.eu/uploads/images/ProgressReport2019/VinylPlus%20Progress%20Report%202019_sp.pdf, "CHW Switches to PVC/DEHP-Free Products to Improve Patient Safety and Protect the Environment", Kaiser Permanente bans PVC tubing and bags, https://vinylplus.eu/resources/progress-report, PVC at Olympics destined for reuse or recycling, The European PVC Portal (European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers), Polyvinyl Chloride International Chemical Safety Cards—CDC/NIOSH, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Polyvinyl_chloride&oldid=990146581, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Chemicals that do not have a ChemSpider ID assigned, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Articles needing additional references from December 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from November 2016, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

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